1. Which ligament attaches the liver to the anterior (ventral) abdominal wall?
– Falciform ligament
2. The gastrocolic ligament is part of?
– the greater omentum
3. The peritoneum consists of what two layers?
– parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum (investing visceral organs)
4. Name four types of peritoneal relationships with the viscera (e.g., how they are covered)
– Intraperitoneal, retroperitoneal, subperitoneal, secondarily peritoneal
5. What mnemonic can be used to remember the retroperitoneal organs?
– SAD PUCKER
6. Name two types of peritoneal formations.
– Mesentary, peritoneal ligament (e.g., falciform ligament)
7. What ligament contains the portal triad?
– Hepatoduodenal ligament
8. What ligament conencts the liver to the stomach?
– Gastrohepatic ligament
9. Name the three greater omentum ligaments.
– Gastrophrenic, gastrosplenic, gastrocolic
10. What is a common digestive disease which involves the formation of pouches (diverticula) within the bowel wall?
11. After reaching the esophagogastic junction what orifice does injested matter enter?
– cardial orifice of stomach
12. At what level of the vertibrae does food pass through the elliptical esophaheal hiatus?
13. What type muscle layers are seen in the esophagus?
– external logitudianl, internal circular
14. What plexus would you find around the left gastric artery and left inferior phrenic artery?
– Periarterial plexus
15. What nerves stem from the vagal trunks lateral to the esophagus?
– Anterior and posterior gastric nerves.
16. What nerve stems from the right thoracic sympathetic trunk?
– Thoracic splanchnic nerve
17. What condition is the tissue lining the esophagus replaced by tissue that is similar to the intestinal lining?
– Barrett’s esophagus
18. What are the three muscle layers of the stomach?
– (outer) longitudinal, (inner) circular, (innermost) oblique
19. What do we call the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the stomach and liver, and duodenum and liver?
– Lesser omentum
20. The two layers of lesser omentum wrap around the stomach and leave the greater
curvature of the stomach as what?
– greater omentum
21. The stomach bed is formed by which structures forming the posterior wall of the omental bursa?
– left dome of diaphragm, spleen, left kidney and suprarenal gland, spletic artery, pancreas, transverse mesocolon and colon.
22. For the stomach, most of the blood is supplied by what type of connections?
23. The left gastric artery of the stomach stems from where?
– celiac trunk
24. The right gastric artery of the stomach stems from where?
– Common hepatic artery
25. The right gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) artery of the stomach stems from where?
– proper hepatic or gastroduodenal arteries
26. The left gastroepiploic artery stems from where?
– Splenic artery
27. The short gastric arteries of the stomach stem from where?
– Distal splenic artery
28. What are the two main branches coming off the celiac trunk of the stomach?
– Common hepatic artery, and splenic artery
29. The right and left gastric veins of the stomach drain into the what?
– Portal vein
30. The right gastroepiploic vein drains into the what?
– Superior mesenteric vein
31. What is the path of drainage of the short gastric veins and left gastroepiploic veins?
– They drain into the splenic vein, then the SMV (superior mesenteric vein), then the portal vein
32. Which parts of the duodenum are retroperitoneal?
– Parts 2-4
33. What is the position of the first part of the duodenum?
– Anterolateral to the body of L1
34. Name the four parts of the duodenum.
– superior, descending, horizontal, ascending
35. The celiac trunk comes off what artery? At what level?
– Abdominal aorta, at level of the lesser curvature of the stomach
36. What is the suspensory ligament of the duodenum? In what section can it be found?
– The ligament of Treitz, ascending 4th part
37. What is the name of your study partner?
38. In which part of the duodenum do the bile duct and main pancreatic ducts via the
hepatopancreatic ampulla enter the posteriormedial wall?
– Descending 2nd part
39. Which part of the duodenum crosses anterior to the IVC and aorta, and posterior to the
SMA, and SMV at the level of the L3 vertebra?
– Horizontal 3rd part
40. What attaches the jejunum and the ileum to the posterior abdominal wall?
41. How is the origin of the mesentary directed?
– obliquely, inferiorly, and to the right
42. The root of the mesentary extends from the duodenojejunal junction on the left side
of the L2 vertebra to what junction, and to which side of the sacroiliac joint?
– Ileocolic junction, to right sacroiliac joint
43. Which parts does the mesentary cross?
– Ascending and horizontal parts of the duodenum, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava,
right ureter, right psoas major muscle, and right testicular or ovarian vessel.
44. Considering the jejunum and ileum together, which is longer?
– The ileum is about 3/5 of the lengh.
45. Considering the jejunum and ileum, which has peyer’s patches and is thin-walled, and less
46. What trunk extends into the common hepatic artery?
47. What artery supplies the jejunal arteries, arterial arcades, ileal arteries, and vasa recta (straight) arteries?
48. What external features distinguish the large intestine from the small intestine?
– Tenia coli, Haustra, Omental appendicies, Caliber (diameter)
49. At what points does the colon take sharp turns – at corner of transverse, and descending colon?
– right colic flexure, left colic flexure
50. Which part of the colon is almost entirely enveloped by peritoneum and can be lifted freely (has no mesentary)?
51. Appendix extends from where to where?
– Posteriormedial aspect of the cecum inferior to the ileocecal junction
52. McBurney’s point is 1/3 of the way along the oblique line joining what to what?
– right anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus
53. Vague pain (not well localized) in periumbilical region as afferent fibers enter the spinal cord at T10 make you think of? (irritation of parietal peritoneum lining posterior abdominal wall)
54. What extends from hepatic flexure on the right to splenic flexure on the left, attached to posterior abdominal wall by its mesentary – largest most mobile section of the colon?
– Transverse colon
55. What two sections of the colon are secondarily retroperitoneal?
– Ascending and descending
56. Descending and sigmoid colon is supplied by which arteries?
– Branches of inferior mesenteric artery IMA, inferior mesenteric vein IMV, left colic, superior sigmoid
57. Ascending colon is supplied by which arteries?
superior mesenteric artery SMA/SVA, iliocolic and right colic
58. Ischemia of right colic artery would affect what part of colon?
– Ascending colon
59. The spleen is entirely intraperitoneal except where?
– The hilum (where splenic arteries and veins leave)
60. The spleen contacts the posterior wall of the stomach, and is connected to its greater
curvature by what ligament? And what ligament connects it to the kidney?
– Gastrosplenic ligament, splenorenal ligament
61. What is the largest branch of the celiac trunk?
– Splenic artery (runs along the superior border of the pancreas)
62. The splenic vein is joined by what vein (near head of the pancreas)? It then unites with what vein to join the portal vein?
– Inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein
63. The body of the pancreas crosses the body of L2 and the aorta, and continues from the neck and lies to the left of what artery and vein?
– Superior mesenteric artery and vein
63. The tail of the pancreas is mobile, and passes through where?
– Splenorenal ligament, and splenic vessels
64. Describe the position of the pancreatic duct.
– begins in the tail of the pancreas and runs through the parenchyma (substance) of the
gland to the head, where it turns inferiorly and merges with the bile duct
65. Describe the position of the bile duct.
– Unites with the pancreatic duct to form a short, dilated hepatopancreatic ampulla which
opens into the descending part of the duodenum at the summit of the major duodenal papilla.
66. What does arteries and veins does the head of the pancreas overlie?
– IVC, left and right renal veins and right renal artery.
67. The neck of the pancreas overlies which vessels?
– Overlies superior mesenteric vessels. It is adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach.
The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) joins the splenic vein to form the
portal vein posterior to the neck.
68. Describe the lymphatic drainage of the liver.
– Drain mainly to the hepatic nodes at the porta hepatis. From hepatic nodes → celiac nodes
→ cisterna chyli
69. Describe the lymphatic drainage of the hepatic veins of the liver.
Formed by union of central veins, drain directly into the IVC inferior to diaphragm
70. What are the two ligaments on the liver which are fetal remnants?
– The round ligament (ligamentum teres) is the occluded remains of the fetal umbilical vein.
The ligamentum venosum is the fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus venosus
71. Name the four lobes of the liver.
– Left, right, caudate, quadrate
– cystic artery from right hepatic artery